Acclimatization of fishes

Acclimatization of Fishes

Acclimatization of Fishes

It is important that you acclimate your fish to the new environment before releasing them into the aquarium.  The purpose of acclimatization is simple: the water that the fish is packaged in has different temperature, pH, and salinity parameters than your aquarium. Fish are very sensitive to even minor changes in these parameters, so proper acclimation is the key to ensuring their successful relocation.  The process of acclimatization should be slow to avoid shock to the fresh stock of livestock / fish.

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Also, remember to keep your aquarium lights off for at least four hours after the specimens are introduced into the aquarium to help them further adjust to the new environment.   It is also advisable that all aquatic life be quarantined in a separate aquarium for a period of one to two weeks to reduce the possibility of introducing diseases and parasites into your aquarium and to ensure they are accepting food, eating properly, and are in optimum health before their final transition to your aquarium.

At times, due to non-availability of quarantine aquarium, this cannot be achieved, it is therefore recommended that you are able to match the water parameters (hardness, temperature etc.) and see for visible signs of deformity and / or pathogens before releasing your new stock into the aquarium.

Acclimatization of Fishes

The sealed packaged fish should be placed in your aquarium.  Turn off the aquarium lights and also dim the lights in the room where the aquarium is situated.  Never open the box in bright light – severe stress or trauma may result from sudden exposure to bright light.  Float the sealed bag in the aquarium for 10-15 minutes.  Do not open the package bag at this time.  This will allow the water in the package bag to adjust slowly to the temperature in the aquarium, while maintaining a high level of dissolved oxygen.  After floating the sealed shipping bag for 10-15 minutes, open the bag slowly without causing agitation to fish(s).

Add 100-200 ml of aquarium water to the package bag of fish.  Repeat this step of addition of aquarium water in small quantities every 3-4 minutes till the package bag of fish is full.  Now discard half the water from the package bag and again keep the package bag floating in the aquarium and proceed to add 100-200ml of water every 3-4 minutes until the bag is full. Now, using the fish net, release the fish into the aquarium and discard the package bag and its water.  Never mix the water of package bag into the aquarium, as there is always a risk of infection.

Patience is Necessary

Be patient – never try and rush the acclimatization procedure. The total time for acclimation should not take more than an hour. You should follow acclimatization procedure even if your new fish appears to be dead.  Some fish and invertebrates can appear as though they are dead when they arrive. They will usually revive when the above procedure is followed correctly.  Never place an airstone into the package bag when acclimatizing your new stock. This will increase the pH of the packaged water too quickly and expose your new stock to lethal ammonia.  Keep aquarium lights off for at least four hours after the new stock is introduced into the aquarium.

Sponges, clams, scallops, and gorgonias should never be directly exposed to air, which could be fatal to them.  In certain instances, your new tank mate will be chased and harassed by one or all of your existing tank mates.  Provide for adequate hiding spaces, this will assist the new member to adjust better and faster.

You could also use a plastic spaghetti strainer. To contain a tank bully within the aquarium for several hours until the new arrival adjusts to its surroundings, it can be used .  You could also use perforated aquarium partition to segregate aggressive species from timid ones / new tanks mates.  After the new addition adjusts to the unfamiliar environment, the divider / partition can be removed.  Please observe the behaviour of the bullying species and that of your new tank mates very carefully and re-introduce the partition. If bullying continues and remove when the environment is conducive.

Precautions

Some live corals produce excess slime when transported. After the culmination of the acclimatization process, hold the coral by the rock or skeletal base. Gently shake it in the package bag before placing into your aquarium. In order to avoid any damage, never touch the “fleshy” part of a live coral.  Many species of coral will not open for several days after introduction into their new home and may look dead.  Please allow several days for the coral to adapt to the new conditions in the aquarium.

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Aquarium Maintenance

Tips to maintain your aquarium

Good aquarium maintenance practices will lead to a healthy aquatic environment and thriving fish, providing years of joy for the hobbyist.  Jump to routine maintenance guide!

Expensive and time-consuming problems can be prevented by spending thirty minutes on maintenance every other week.

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The biggest factor for maintenance is tank stability / Nitrogen Cycle. As long as everything is running properly and your fish are healthy, there is no need for any major change, even if the pH or hardness seems to be slightly out of range; only increases or decreases of the major aquarium water parameters will need your careful but immediate attention.

Water Changes :

A key part of aquarium maintenance is the water change, which should be performed about every two weeks. In most cases, 10-15% of the tank volume is sufficient. A good method is to replace the water extracted while vacuuming the gravel, which will eliminate uneaten foods and other residues that settle on the substrate.

It is highly recommended to check the water parameters of both the tank and replacement water. Most tap water (city water) contains either chlorine or chloramine. Chlorine will air out rather quickly (kept in an aerated bucked for twenty-four hours); chloramine (chloramine = chlorine + ammonia) will not. Using a water conditioner will neutralize the chlorine in both cases, but ammonia will still be present in the latter. It has to be broken down by the nitrifying bacteria present in the aquarium. This may take longer than your fish can tolerate.

Aquarium Maintenance

Other elements of municipal water may be phosphates, iron, and other heavy metals. To find out about your tap water chemistry, call your local water company.  Well water is usually harder than tap water, but it is chlorine/chloramine free.

You will need to thoroughly check the water parameters before investing upon an aquarium as purchasing water might be an expensive proposition for effecting periodic partial water changes.

You may also read : Acclimatization of Fishes

Aeration :

Regularly check the air-pump to ensure adequate air-flow and aeration. Periodically change the air stones which get clogged. You can chose air-stone as per the requirement of the aquarium livestock and for increasing the aesthetic sense of your aquarium.

Filtrations :

Regularly check the substrate of your filter to ensure adequate filtration and clean them regularly in aquarium water. Never use the tap water for cleaning the filter.  The choice of filter is very important as different species of fish can react differently to water movements. Fishes like Siamese Betta Fish, Angel fish, Ramerezi prefer peaceful water movement.  Oscar and Blood Red Parrot are comfortable in filtration system with heavy water movement.  Goldfishes are best suited with external filtration system as their fins are often entangled and sucked in internal filter system. Choosing the right filter often becomes a matter of life and death for fishes.

Do write to Aquasovi in case you have any specific queries, we will be more than happy to assist you in maintaining healthy and safe aquarium and its livestock.

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Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

The Nitrogen cycle is a process whereby ammonia products, which are secreted by aquatic fishes as waste, are converted by bacteria to and then into Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fish in very low concentrations, so establishing the good bacteria colonies that quickly convert these compounds to nitrate is crucial to creating a healthy environment for fish.

Generally, Nitrate are far less toxic, and can easily be removed through periodic water changes or consumption by live plants. Most fish mortality in new tanks can be traced to the lack of an established nitrogen cycle in the tank.  Addition of new fishes or overstocking can also affect the Nitrogen Cycle.

Before you introduce fish(s) in your new tank you,  be sure that the Nitrogen cycle is in place, meaning, that the aquarium is self sustaining and is capable to disposing the waste.  During this time you must closely watch your tank and monitor the levels of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate. By monitoring these parameters you will be able to tell when your tank has become habitable for fish.

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The Nitrogen Cycle consists of:

Ammonia

The Nitrogen cycle is started when ammonia (NH3) is introduced into the tank as fish waste. This ammonia builds up until the bacteria that eat it start to form a colony (a bacteria bloom may be observed as white cloudiness within the tank), and can convert the ammonia to nitrite as fast as they are produced. When the amount of ammonia spikes, and starts to decline, you know you are going into the second phase of the cycle.

Nitrites

As ammonia starts to decline, you will see the nitrite levels rise then spike.  Nitrites are the by-products of the ammonia-eating bacteria, and are also highly toxic to fish. This leads to form a second colony of bacteria that will dispose of Nitrites as they are produced. These bacteria will in turn create nitrate.  Once the levels of nitrites and ammonia have reached 0ppm (“parts per million”), your tank is said to have been cycled. You can now introduce fresh fishes in your tank.

Nitrates

The Nitrates are the final product of the nitrogen cycle. Nitrates are not toxic to fish in low concentrations, although they become toxic somewhere above 20ppm depending on the species.

In order to start the cycle you could add some organic wastes in little quantity daily. Allow it to decompose and check the parameters of Ammonia, Nitrate and Nitrites.  On in alternative you could add beneficial bacteria, as per the recommendation of the manufacturer, directly into the aquarium to speed up the Nitrogen Cycle. Always introduce the fish(s) in your aquarium in a manner that does not imbalances the equilibrium of the Nitrogen Cycle. Many factors are to be borne in mind while introducing the fishes, viz., the size, the variety (some may be prone to produce more wastes than others) and the size of the aquarium itself.  It is advisable that you do some research before introducing the fishes into the aquarium.

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Chemical Filtration

Chemical Filtration

In addition, dissolved wastes are more difficult to remove from the water. The process of decomposition of dissolved wastes directly and adversely affects the smooth running of Nitrogen cycle. There are several techniques, collectively known as chemical filtration, which are used for the removal of dissolved wastes. The most popular being the use of activated carbon and foam fractionation.  To a certain extent, healthy plants extract dissolved chemical wastes from water when they grow, these plants can serve as a role in the containment of dissolved wastes.  However, for any reasons, if the plant(s) don’t survive the situation in an aquarium can quickly get aggravated. Thus affecting the health of all the species. Care has to be taken while utilizing natural / live plats in an aquarium to offset the consequences of chemical impurities.

 

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We at Aquasovi offers wide range of Physical, Chemical and Biological filtration, which can be used in aquarium for healthy and safe aquatic environment.  Check out the filtration range.

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Aquasovi is first of its kind to offer home delivery of tropical and brackish water fishes in Delhi and National Capital Region. Aquarium accessories at competitive prices are available to aquarist and hobbyist throughout India. Aquasovi shall endeavour to cater to requirement of aquarium enthusiast in terms of knowledge as well as delivery of fish and accessories. We hope to serve our customers with quality fishes & proven aquarium accessories. We would appreciate comments and feedback from our customers.

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Mechanical Filtration

Mechanical Filtration

The process of mechanical filtration is aimed at removing particulate material from the water. This matter may include uneaten food, faeces or plant or algal debris. Mechanical filtration is ordinarily achieved by passing water through materials which act as a sieve, physically trapping the particulate matter.  In easy terminology, solid waste can removed by physical hand netting of debris, or it may involve highly equipment which permits the water to flow through the filter and medium contained thereunder, which traps the physical wastes

Also, Removal of solid wastes from water through some form of medium is known as mechanical filtration. The solid wastes are first collected, and then must be physically removed from the aquarium system.  Mechanical filtration is ultimately ineffective if the solid wastes are not removed from the filter, and are allowed to decay and dissolve in the water.  Therefore, it is advisable that the Mechanical filtration works in conjugation with biological and / or Chemical Filtration to achieve desired result. 

Mechanical Filtration

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Aquasovi is first of its kind to offer home delivery of tropical and brackish water fishes in Delhi and National Capital Region. Aquarium accessories at competitive prices are available to aquarist and hobbyist throughout India. Aquasovi shall endeavour to cater to requirement of aquarium enthusiast in terms of knowledge as well as delivery of fish and accessories. We hope to serve our customers with quality fishes & proven aquarium accessories. We would appreciate comments and feedback from our customers.

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Freshwater Fish Disease

Freshwater Fish Disease

Freshwater Fish Disease

Ammonia Poisoning

This is on account of Nitrogen cycle being incomplete and the reasons could many, to name a few: overfeeding, overstocking of tanks, absence or inadequate functioning of filtration system etc. The symptoms are Red or inflamed gills, fish are gasping for air at the surface. This is common in new tank setup.

Fresh Water Fish Remedy

Ammonia poisoning is easily preventable. Avoid adding expensive and less hardy tropical fish until the aquarium has cycled. For more information on cycling your aquarium please read about the Aquarium Nitrogen Cycle. You can use a substance called zeolite to help absorb ammonia but the best solution is to ensure that your aquarium has cycled and that your tank is not overcrowded. If your tank has not yet completed the nitrogen cycle, you will need to perform frequent to keep the ammonia levels down.

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Freshwater Fish Disease Symptoms and Treatment

Freshwater Fish Disease Symptoms and Treatment

You will find here freshwater fish diseases, their common name, symptoms and treatment options for your sick freshwater fish. Before you use any medication on your tank make sure that you have properly diagnosed the freshwater fish disease and try to figure out why your tropical fish have the disease or problem to start. Many diseases are brought on by the fish being stressed due to transport or water quality issues. If you’ve just set up your tank, please read about new tank syndrome.
It’s a very good idea to have a small quarantine tank for new fish so that you may monitor the fish for a few weeks before adding the fish to your main tank. You can also use the quarantine tank for your fish that come down with a freshwater fish disease and can avoid adding chemicals to your main tank. Always practice good fish acclimation techniques and don’t rush things.Try to determine the underlying problem before medicating. Often times there are water quality issues that need to be remedied first. Get and use an aquarium test kit and take the appropriate measures to correct the water in your aquarium.

Medication

Whenever you use any type of medication on your tropical fish, first remove any carbon in your filtration system. If left in, the carbon will remove the medication from the water, doing you no good. Read the directions on the medication bottle very carefully!
It is advisable that you determine the cause of the freshwater fish disease, fix any obvious problem(s) (water quality problems and tank mates), figure out which disease your fish has by closely observing the symptoms and then treat only if necessary.

GENERAL SYMPTOMS OF ILLNESS OR DISEASED HEALTH

Altered or decreased activity : These are common signs of disease, but they are not specific to one disease and may be seen with poor water quality, various infectious diseases and many other problems.
Clamped fins : This is a nonspecific sign that can be seen with a variety of diseases.
Flashing or glancing : The act of fish rubbing up against objects in the aquarium may be a sign of irritated skin. This is commonly observed with fish afflicted with external parasites.
Isolation : With fish that normally school, an individual isolating itself from the group can be an early indication of disease.
Respiration concerns

Furthermore, Gasping for air at the surface is a sign of either poor water quality (including low dissolved oxygen) or gill disease (parasites, bacteria, viruses). Also look for increased breathing rates and crowding near the filter return at the top of the water column.
Skin lesions : Skin lesions are one of the most common signs of disease and are often the first problem observed by hobbyists.
Most of all, Fish ailments can be broadly categorised into 4 general types viz., bacterial infections, fungal infections, parasitic or protozoan infections, and physical ailments and wounds.

Bacterial Diseases

In addition, Bacterial diseases are usually characterized by red streaks or spots and / or swelling of the abdomen or eye. Inactivity, loss of color, frayed fins, bloated body, cloudy eyes, open sores, abscesses, red streaks throughout body, reddening or inflammation of the skin, fins or internal organs, bulging eyes, difficulty breathing. These are best treated by antibiotics.

Fungal Diseases

Consequently, Erratic swimming, darting, scratching, visible cotton-like tufts on skin, eyes, or mouth. Common fungal infections often look like gray or white fluffy patches.

Parasitic Diseases

Probably the Inactivity, loss of appetite, excess mucus or film on body, visible spots or worms, rapid breathing, scratching. The most common parasitic disease called “Ich” can be treated most effectively with copper or malachite green in the right dosage. Most treatments will have copper as an ingredient. If the treatment you use is an anti-biotic or copper based, remember to remove all carbon from the filtration system, as its presence will prevent the medicine from being effective.

Physical Ailments

Also, Physical Ailments are often the result of the environment. Poor quality water conditions can lead to fish gasping, not eating, jumping out of the tank, and more. Tank mate problems can result in nipped fins and bite wounds.
Either, there are certain precaution, which you could take to prevent Fish Diseases and also help keep fish diseases from spreading if they do occur.

Advice

1. Buy only good-quality and compatible fish to avoid stress amongst the tank mates. Educate yourself about any special needs a species may have.
2. Quarantine new fish before adding them to the aquarium. (A quarantine or a hospital tank can be used for this).
3. Avoid stressing the fish with rough handling, sudden changes in conditions, or “bully” tank-mates.
4. Feed a balanced and varied diet consisting of commercially prepared foods (e.g., flake, frozen, freeze dried), supplemented with live foods, and avoid overfeeding.
5. Observe your fish regularly to monitor changes in behaviour or for symptoms of disease. Immediately remove sick fish to a hospital tank for treatment.
6. Always disinfect nets used to remove sick fish from aquarium.
7. Also, never transfer diseased water from the quarantine tank to the main aquarium tank.
8. Same, never let any metal to come in contact with the aquarium water.

9. Equipment shared between aquariums, such as nets, etc., should be soaked in water above 90 degrees Fahrenheit for several minutes or soaked in a weak bleach solution. Use liberal amounts of fresh water to remove any residual chlorine.
10. Maintain excellent water quality and perform frequent water changes. Monitor water quality weekly and keep a log to monitor changes.
11. While using any anti-biotic, make sure the biological filtration in your aquarium is not affected. You should ensure that the treatment does not kill the nitrifying bacteria in your system.

12. While using any medication which has copper as an ingredient, be aware that most plants are likely to be affected by its usages. Further, Invertebrates, such as snails, such medication can be fatal. That’s why most snail removers are copper based.

Things to know

As a result, most of the treatments available will not harm your biological filter, sometimes they might adversely affect the Biological status of the aquarium. It is important that you read the instructions on the medicine before using the same.

In conclusion, It is advisable that you monitor ammonia and nitrite levels, or use an ammonia remover to be sure that the levels of ammonia don’t become a problem.

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Biological Filtration

Biological Filtration

Filters under this category cater to proper and smooth functioning of Nitrogen Cycle. The proper management of the nitrogen cycle is a vital element of a successful aquarium. Metabolic wastes and excreta and other decomposing organic matter produce ammonia which is highly toxic to fish. The primary function of Biological Filter is to ensure proper breakdown of dangerous substances to make it suitable and conducive for aquarium ecology.

(For details refer to Nitrogen Cycle)

In most cases, a biological filter is nothing more than a chemically inert porous sponge, which provides a greatly enlarged surface area on which these bacteria can develop.

 

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Buy Fishes Online

Aquasovi is first of its kind to offer home delivery of tropical and brackish water fishes in Delhi and National Capital Region. Aquarium accessories at competitive prices are available to aquarist and hobbyist throughout India. Aquasovi shall endeavour to cater to requirement of aquarium enthusiast in terms of knowledge as well as delivery of fish and accessories. We hope to serve our customers with quality fishes & proven aquarium accessories. We would appreciate comments and feedback from our customers.

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New Tank Syndrome

New Tank Syndrome

Those who are purchasing a new aquarium or those who are new in this hobby, this important aspect is overlooked.  For healthy and sustainable aquatic life, precautions are necessary. It is important that we mimic natural environment.  All the living species in the aquarium on account of metabolic activity, will produce waste. Which has be “disposed” without adversely affecting the health of aquarium fish and plants.  These wastes will generally decompose in natural environment without any man made intervention. However, in aquarium since the nature cannot play a direct role, it is important that adequate accessories are in place to assist such decomposition of wastes. This is done by supplanting the aquarium with filtration and aeration. Some systems incorporate bacteria capable of converting nitrates into nitrogen gas thus assisting in disposal of wastes.

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Precautions

While purchasing a new aquarium please be aware of these things. The bacterial colonies, involved in decomposition of wastes, take several weeks to form. During which time the aquarium is vulnerable to a condition commonly known as “new tank syndrome”.  This syndrome can also arise if the aquarium is stocked with too many fishes or the fishes are added too quickly.

Accumulation of toxic ammonia from decomposing wastes is the largest cause of fish mortality in new, poorly maintained, or overloaded aquariums.

In the artificial environment of the aquarium, the nitrogen cycle effectively ends with the production of nitrates. In order that the nitrate level does not build up to a harmful level regular partial water changes are required to remove the nitrates and introduce new, uncontaminated water.

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